Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare genetic disease that causes persistent lung infections and, over time, limits the patient’s ability to breathe over time. In people with CF, a defective gene (CFTR) causes a thick, sticky build-up of mucus in the lungs, pancreas, and other organs. People with the disease inherit two copies of the defective CFTR gene, one from each parent. In the lungs, the mucus clogs the airways and traps bacteria, leading to recurrent infections, lung inflammation and damage, and, eventually, respiratory failure. Patients with CF are treated with physiotherapy, postural drainage and antibiotics, which together help remove mucus from their lungs, improve their ability to breathe, and address chronic lung infections.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare lung disease that, for an unknown reason, results in scarring (fibrosis) of the lungs. Over time, this scar formation worsens, making it hard for patients to take dee breaths. IPF fan interstitial lung disease, primarily involving affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs), and not directly affecting the airways or blood vessels. There is no cure for IPF and, currently, no procedures or medications to remove the scarring from the lungs. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that IPF affects 30%–50% of hospital patients who have recovered from severe Covid-19.